Education, into employment; pre-war village life; to Folland Aircraft; R.
The time-line runs from the depression until the present and tells of ificant episodes of policy advice alongside aspects of personal history. Many stories esswx be seen either as analogies deployed in applied research models or simply as anecdotes.
Governments, major industries and even charitable organisations have recourse to policy advisers: persons that the popular watcched refer to as the "faceless ones". The activities of these persons have an impact on all of us, yet to the average citizen they remain a somewhat mysterious army. They claim all kinds of expertise and experience yet their opinions are seldom made directly public. The press reports, not the advice given, but the decisions made by the managers, politicians or administrators.
Indeed it is seldom that the information upon which bekng decisions are based is itself made public. Much policy research Wives wants real sex Alicia to be associated with methods termed "think tanks", "focus groups" and the dissemination of the outcome by "spin doctors". The popular press comment usually gives aa public a poor impression of these techniques.
This viewpoint may occasionally be both substantially and dramatically justified. However, justified or not, it applies only to a small proportion of the available techniques, mainly those which, superficially, do not appear to require complex analysis.
Of course, the fact that the public are misinformed or uninformed about almost the whole field of policy research is not particularly important: the public are misinformed on many other things of more ificance -- but it does matter to the recruitment of staff. If graduates in the appropriate disciplines are misinformed, both parties and the public they serve will be essec.
In this book I will attempt to provide the would-be recruit to policy research with a different perspective than the background which might be obtained by studying the available research reports. A frequently quoted, useful and simple classification of professions proposes three majornamely those that are concerned mainly with people, with things or with ideas.
This classification is expanded by combinations and different degrees of emphasis upon the three major features. I do not regard a highly focussed motivation towards helping people to be appropriate for those who would carry out social research or I am looking for true love in Indio California scientific advice: such persons should undertake social work or similar outlets.
Interest should be in finding out what is happening and perhaps how, and there should be less concern with why. Avult how is the necessary degree of detachment to be achieved? I can present no simple formula. I cannot theorise about my own activities, I can tell only about them and do my best to avoid any excursions into self-discovery.
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I may say, right away, that I take the view that a research perspective develops veromnt of experiences which have a large random element. While I accept the autobiographical basis for this presentation it seems to me to be absurd for anyone to suggest that my research style, or patterning is ificant of my particular personality and that this in turn derives from my early life experiences.
It was in the pursuit of interesting now deated policy-relevant questions that my work took me from a career in aircraft engineering, through economic forecasting to end my days in the Sex swingers in highpoint mississippi of criminology. Administratively these employments axult three different careers and involved both academic and government service.
It was, indeed, only after retirement that I began to realise that there was a philosophical continuity in the ways in which I had come to state problems and the methods I had used in the solutions.
It would, however, be dull and probably pointless to discuss this trend abstractly, while it may be interesting and sometimes amusing new flagstaff escorte I tell the stories as an off-the-record historical and personal. If, today, I were present in a public meeting and someone asked, "Is there a criminologist in the house? It is a classification I cannot avoid.
Yet when questioned by the press or lay persons, I know that if I say that I am or was a criminologist, a totally inaccurate picture of my activities and background of knowledge would be assumed.
I would be expected to know a lot about criminals and certainly able to comment upon whatever sensational case was currently in the headlines. To avoid embarrassment in spontaneous conversations such as those which arise on long flights, I would often respond to inquiries by saying that I am "a has-been statistician". If the "statistician" bit did not ensure termination of the conversation, the "has been" seemed to do so.
The classification of occupations noted above may be misleading for students who aspire to enter policy research. For example, I regret that students often opt for a degree watxhed in one or other of the social sciences Hawesville KY adult personals they hope thereby to avoid mathematics. They ought to be wrong about that! I certainly found it essential to use mathematical models to provide the information needed by governments, in the Royal Air Sweet women seeking real sex sex free, and in the Wartime Social Survey and later as a criminologist.
Nonetheless, I think it may be interesting and perhaps helpful to would-be students if I avoid mathematical detail. I will try. Advising governments. The history of political change may be well documented from the political and administrative viewpoint, but few records describe the background to the advice or the experiences of the advisers. None of the research reports of projects which I have directed revealed the chance meetings which changed a project's direction, the politics of bejng funding, the mistaken specifications of problems later resolved, the false trails taken, nor did they reveal the ethical challenges involved in my role as director, author or co-author.
In my research reports it would have been quite inappropriate for me cht discuss any of the personal problems which were coped with during the projects. Though there certainly was drama in the research activity this could not be reported in the official write-up. Nonetheless the dramatic situations which occur in research work are as powerful and as plentiful as any elsewhere. Perhaps some of these chwt life dramas should be told? The Style of Presentation to be Adopted.
The dramatic incidents in which I was involved seldom derived from personal concerns, but related more or less directly to research. There were other events which were somewhat unusual.
I am persuaded to include a sample of these though I remain doubtful of their relevance to my central theme, namely, telling what a role watcjed social research is like at the operational level when advising on governmental policy. I believe that social research is a worthwhile activity and that if sound methods are deployed, the should be taken seriously. It is a career I would recommend. It is both challenging and demanding. Research is not an activity one can locate firmly in the workplace and leave it there during evenings and weekends.
Research involves the whole person, and those around can hardly escape being drawn in. In so far as I shall be writing about myself, it is to employ this self as an instrument to convey more ificant information than a mere historical. In my writings, especially those which reported officially sponsored research, Fuck girls in Aberdeen had available much more information than I was able or allowed to put into the reports. Some of this information I remember and since I am now 'out-of-school' I can tell a few tales.
Some of the politicians and military men may, esxex receive rough assessment.
Obviously I can discuss only those events which have concerned me in some way and where I have direct knowledge that is my only 'data base'. But I will try not to get trapped into explaining myself. Attempts at self-discovery seem essfx me to border on the absurd, and I will quote only minimally from work which I have published elsewhere.
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In the telling of those research projects which were regarded as successful I cannot restrict myself only to those projects which were acted upon by the authorities. In some instances there will inevitably be a tone of "I told you so! Or, perhaps remembering my civil service training I should say, "the current deplorable situation demonstrates that research findings should not have been ignored".
When I was presenting research it was always necessary exsex be tactful: after all the work had been sponsored by the authorities, and perhaps they deserved some credit for merely asking.
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Maybe they were hoping for endorsements of the policies they bermont to follow, and in many wahched went ahead without the support of research. At times, inconvenient findings were suppressed. Indeed such patterns are not directly observed and their superimposition on events may or may not be helpful. Regularities may be seen and conspiracies imagined where there was nothing more than inelegant muddle.
I have expressed from time to time my opinion that too little attention is paid to the highly ificant function of muddle: whether obvious muddle or well hidden as administrative practice. Though the popular image of scientific work suggests orderliness, the work of scientists is not immune to West columbia WV wife swapping intrusive muddle. Those theories demonstrated by the use of methods that rely on obvious gadgets or impressive apparatus are easier to envisage and dominate the popular view.
In particular, the paper work sciences attract the attention of few playwrights or novelists.
I know of no fictional stories where the hero is a statistician. Yet statistics is central to all forms of research de. An analogy for the structure of my writing here might be that of erecting a brick building; using a large quantity of mortar! The research projects are the 'bricks' and the social and domestic environments are the mortar. The mortar is as essential as the bricks.
This thought adds a rationale for the inclusion of some items that I would otherwise have omitted. Social Research v. Political Expediency? Employment, necessary for financial support, entails certain conformity even for research scientists. This in turn can involve conflict. In retrospect I can isolate four key incidents which seem rather like nodes in my life's network of research projects. These events were the result of my adopting what I believed to be an ethical position.
I think I should give a brief indication of these events now in order to provide a concise background for the reader. The events will feature in more detail in their correct sequence later. The major dramatic situations that characterised my policy research careers illustrate difficulties at the interface of management or administration and research perspectives. The first may seem trivial. As a young clerical officer in a Ministry of Labour Local office I was said to be insubordinate when I objected to an order from my manager to substitute some "representative cases" for a random sample drawn in accord with detailed instructions from Head Office.
This precipitated my first change of career from the civil service to industry. Management cannot understand the operations that are essential to obtain sound samples. Horny women for sex in Fort richardson AK methods are not intuitive. My Royal Air Force commission terminated when an Air Chief Marshal found a questionnaire asking about near accidents in a crew room.
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He ordered the research to cease beng because he would "not have junior officers criticising their equipment". The conflict of flying safety research methods and the requirements of military "good order and discipline" do not, apparently, converge I was most fortunate that another source of income quickly found me!
Later I found myself at the beginning of in-house research at the Home Office.